Showing: 10 from total: 2087 publications
31. The path towards type V deep eutectic solvents: inductive effects and steric hindrance in the system <i>tert</i>-butanol plus perfluoro <i>tert</i>-butanol
Vaz, ICM ; Ferreira, AIMCL ; Silva, GMC ; Morgado, P ; Abranches, DO ; Bastos, M ; Santos, LMNBF ; Filipe, EJM ; Coutinho, JAP
in PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 2023, ISSN: 1463-9076,  Volume: 25, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract The solid-liquid phase behaviour of two tertiary alcohols, perfluoro-tert-butanol and tert-butanol, was studied here using experimental (ITC, DSC and density measurements) and theoretical (MD simulations) approaches. The phase diagram of the binary mixture reveals highly negative deviations from ideality at low concentrations, as well as the formation of co-crystals and is characterized by two eutectic points, a congruent melting point and a peritectic reaction corresponding to TBH : TBF stoichiometries of 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 respectively. Excess molar enthalpies and volumes were calculated, showing negative and positive deviations from ideality, respectively. The effect of acidity, stereochemical hindrance and phobic effects and how they affect intermolecular interactions in these binary mixtures is discussed, with the aim of designing and fine-tuning type V deep eutectic solvents. The results showed that the fluorination of tertiary alcohols can be used for the tuning of the mixing properties and solid-liquid phase diagrams.

32. Thermochemical study of the antioxidant activity of some hydroxycoumarins
Silva, ALR ; Lima, ACMO ; Matos, MAR ; Morais, VMF
in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS, 2023, ISSN: 0021-9614,  Volume: 180, 
Article,  Indexed in: scopus, wos 
Abstract This work reports a combined thermochemical experimental and computational study on 6-hydroxycoumarin. The standard (p degrees = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation in the condensed state of this compound was derived from the standard molar energy of combustion in oxygen at T = 298.15 K, measured by combustion calorimetry. Calvet microcalorimetry was used to derive the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation. By combining these values, the standard molar enthalpy of formation in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K,-(339.8 +/- 2.4) kJ.mol-1 was derived.Accurate quantum chemical calculations at the composite G3 and at the DLPNO-CCSD(T) levels of theory have also been conducted in order to characterize the energetics of all the hydroxycoumarins studied and their rad-icalar related species, allowing us to further support our experimental measurements and to adequately quantify and rationalize the antioxidant activity of these systems.

33. Enthalpy of Formation of the Nitrogen-Rich Salt Guanidinium 5,5′-Azotetrazolate (GZT) and a Simple Approach for Estimating the Enthalpy of Formation of Energetic C, H, N, O Salts
Silva, LR ; León, P ; Ribeiro da Silva, DMC ; Klapötke, M ; Reinhardt, J
in Thermo, 2023, ISSN: 2673-7264,  Volume: 3, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus 
Abstract The discrepancy between the calculated (CBS-4M/Jenkins) and experimentally determined enthalpies of formation recently reported for the 2:1 salt TKX-50 raised the important question of whether the enthalpies of formation of other 2:1 C, H, N, O salts calculated using the CBS-4M/Jenkins method are reliable values. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) enthalpy of formation of crystalline guanidinium 5,5′-azotetrazolate (GZT) (453.6 ± 3.2 kJ/mol) was determined experimentally using static-bomb combustion calorimetry and was found to be in good agreement with the literature’s values. However, using the CBS-4M/Jenkins method, the calculated enthalpy of formation of GZT was again in poor agreement with the experimentally determined value. The method we used recently to calculate the enthalpy of formation of TKX-50, based on the calculation of the heat of formation of the salt and of the corresponding neutral adduct, was then applied to GZT and provided excellent agreement with the experimentally determined value. Finally, in order to validate the findings, this method was also applied to predict the enthalpy of formation of a range of 1:1 and 2:1 salts (M+X− and (M+)2X2− salts, respectively), and the values obtained were comparable to experimentally determined values. The agreement using this approach was generally very good for both 1:1 and 2:1 salts; therefore, this approach provides a simple and reliable method which can be applied to calculate the enthalpy of formation of energetic C, H, N, O salts with much greater accuracy than the current, commonly used method. © 2023 by the authors.

34. Thermodynamic properties of benzotriazole derivatives: An experimental and computational study
Silva, ALR ; Lima, ACMO ; da Silva, MDMCR
in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS, 2023, ISSN: 0021-9614,  Volume: 186, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract A thermochemical study of 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzotriazole was carried out experimentally using calorimetric techniques and an effusion method. Parallel to that, a computational methodology was also applied. The massic energies of combustion and the enthalpies of sublimation were determined from static bomb combustion calorimetry and Knudsen mass-loss effusion method and/or high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry, respectively. From these experimental data, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the two benzotriazoles in the gaseous phase were derived. Additionally, the gas-phase enthalpies of formation of these benzotriazoles and other two methylated derivatives were calculated using the G3(MP2)// B3LYP level of theory. The data obtained allowed the study of the energetic effects associated with the presence of a methyl group in the benzotriazole structure and their comparison with identical effects in homocyclic molecules, namely benzene and naphthalene. The Gibbs energies of formation of the compounds in the crystalline and gaseous phases were also determined to assess their thermodynamic stability.

35. Inside Cover: On the Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Sublimation of Dihydroxylammonium 5,5′‐bitetrazole‐1,1′‐dioxide (TKX‐50) (Prop., Explos., Pyrotech. 7/2023)
Silva, ALR ; Almeida, ARRP ; Ribeiro da Silva, MDMC ; Reinhardt, J ; Klapötke, TM
in Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 2023, ISSN: 0721-3115,  Volume: 48, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, unpaywall 

36. On the Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Sublimation of Dihydroxylammonium 5,5′-bitetrazole-1,1′-dioxide (TKX-50)
Silva, ALR ; Almeida, ARRP ; da Silva, MDMCR ; Reinhardt, J ; Klapötke, TM
in PROPELLANTS EXPLOSIVES PYROTECHNICS, 2023, ISSN: 0721-3115,  Volume: 48, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract The thermodynamic characterization of dihydroxylammonium 5,5 '-bitetrazole-1,1 '-dioxide (TKX-50) was reinvestigated. Although TKX-50 is one of the most promising new-generation energetic materials, contradictory reports are found in the literature with regard to its solid enthalpy of formation. The standard (p degrees=10(5) Pa) molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline TKX-50, (175.3 +/- 1.9) kJ center dot mol(-1), was determined experimentally based on the measured standard massic energy of combustion, determined through static-bomb combustion calorimetry. Additionally, the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation of TKX-50, at T=298.15 K, (165.0 +/- 2.4) kJ center dot mol(-1), was derived from vapor pressure measurements determined by a Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique. Finally, different approaches were used in attempts to calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of TKX-50 in the solid state. A critical overview and assessment of the data on the enthalpy of formation of TKX-50 is also presented.

37. Energetic Effects in Methyl- and Methoxy-Substituted Indanones: A Synergistic Experimental and Computational Study
Silva, ALR ; León, GP ; da Silva, MDMCR
in APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, 2023, ISSN: 2076-3417,  Volume: 13, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract This experimental and computational study on the energetic properties of 2-methyl-, 3-methyl-, 4-methoxy- and 5-methoxy-indanones has been carried out using mostly calorimetric techniques and a suitable computational approach. The combustion and sublimation/vaporization enthalpies were determined via combustion calorimetry and Calvet microcalorimetry, respectively, allowing for the calculation of the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous phase. The enthalpy of sublimation of 5-methoxy-indanone was also derived via Knudsen effusion. Additionally, the gas-phase standard molar enthalpies of formation of these compounds were determined from high-level ab initio calculations at the G3(MP2)//B3LYP level of theory. The results obtained experimentally and through the computational approach are in good agreement. Thus, the gas-phase enthalpy of formation of 2-methylcyclopentanone was estimated with this approach. Moreover, the energetic effects associated with the presence of a methyl and methoxy group on the indanone core were analyzed, using the experimental values reported in this work. The presence of a methoxy group contributes to a decrease in the gas-phase enthalpy of formation, of about 153 kJ center dot mol(-1), whereas in the case of a methyl group, the corresponding value is c.a. 35 kJ center dot mol(-1). Finally, a quantitative analysis of the effects of delocalization of the electron density on the methyl-indanones was performed, using NBO calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2df,2p) wave function.

38. Plasmonic genosensor for detecting hazelnut Cor a 14-encoding gene for food allergen monitoring
Moreira P. ; Costa J. ; Villa C. ; Mafra I. ; Brandão A.T.S.C. ; Dias C. ; Silva A.F. ; Pereira C.M. ; Costa R.
in ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA, 2023, ISSN: 0003-2670,  Volume: 1259, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, unpaywall, wos 
Abstract A plasmonic nanostructure was constructed as a biorecognition element coupled to an optical sensing platform in sandwich format, targeting the hazelnut Cor a 14 allergen-encoding gene. The analytical performance of the genosensor presented a linear dynamic range between 100 amol L-1 and 1 nmol L-1 , a limit of detection (LOD) < 19.9 amol L-1 , and a sensitivity of 13.4 +/- 0.6 m.. The genosensor was successfully hybridized with hazelnut PCR products, tested with model foods, and further validated by real-time PCR. It reached a LOD <0.001% (10 mg kg(-1) ) of hazelnut in wheat material (corresponding to 1.6 mg kg(-1) of protein) and a sensitivity of 17.2 +/- 0.5 m. for a linear range of 0.001%-1%. Herein, a new genosensing approach is proposed as a highly sensitive and specific alternative tool with potential application in monitoring hazelnut as an allergenic food, protecting the health of sensitized/allergic individuals.

39. Renewable Carbon Materials as Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors: From Marine Biowaste to High Specific Surface Area Porous Biocarbons
Brandão, TSC ; State, S ; Costa, R ; Potorac, P ; Vázquez, A ; Valcarcel, J ; Silva, A ; Anicai, L ; Enachescu, M ; Pereira, M
in ACS Omega, 2023, ISSN: 2470-1343,  Volume: 8, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus 
Abstract Waste, in particular, biowaste, can be a valuable source of novel carbon materials. Renewable carbon materials, such as biomass-derived carbons, have gained significant attention recently as potential electrode materials for various electrochemical devices, including batteries and supercapacitors. The importance of renewable carbon materials as electrodes can be attributed to their sustainability, low cost, high purity, high surface area, and tailored properties. Fish waste recovered from the fish processing industry can be used for energy applications and prioritizing the circular economy principles. Herein, a method is proposed to prepare a high surface area biocarbon from glycogen extracted from mussel cooking wastewater. The biocarbon materials were characterized using a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyzer to determine the specific surface area and pore size and by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Raman analysis, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterization was performed using a three-electrode system, utilizing a choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an eco-friendly and sustainable electrolyte. Optimal time and temperature allowed the preparation of glycogen-based carbon materials, with a specific surface area of 1526 m2 g-1, a pore volume of 0.38 cm3 g-1, and an associated specific capacitance of 657 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1, at 30 °C. The optimal material was scaled up to a two-electrode supercapacitor using a DES-based solid-state electrolyte (SSE@DES). This prototype delivered a maximum capacitance of 703 F g-1 at a 1 A g-1 of current density, showing 75% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles, delivering the highest energy density of 0.335 W h kg-1 and power density of 1341 W kg-1. Marine waste can be a sustainable source for producing nanoporous carbon materials to be incorporated as electrode materials in energy storage devices. © 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

40. Electrified interfaces of deep eutectic solvents
Costa, R ; Brandao, ATSC ; Pereira, CM ; Silva, AF
in ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, 2023, ISSN: 0013-4686,  Volume: 461, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, unpaywall, wos 
Abstract Many theoretical and experimental studies have been focused on the physicochemical properties of dense ionic fluids such as ionic liquids (ILs). However, less attention has been given to interfacial properties involving deep eutectic solvents (DES). The impact of the DES composition, hydrogen bond donor (HBD) structure, temperature, and electrode nature material on the DES-electrode vertical interactions remain vague. The lack of knowledge imposes significant constraints in proposing a suitable Electrical Double Layer model (EDL) to describe the DES at electrified interfaces. Measuring differential capacitance-potential curves is a strategy to assess the EDL structure and understand how ions interact with the electrode surface, which knowledge is fundamental to designing and optimizing electrochemical systems for various applications (e.g., energy storage devices). Accordingly, a set of choline chloride-based DESs was assessed containing distinct HBD at their eutectic composition (the poly-alcohol's 1,2-ethanediol, 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3-propylene glycol, and the amide urea) against glassy carbon (GC), gold (Au), and the platinum (Pt) electrode at different temperatures. The differential capacitance-potential curves were found to vary significantly in shape in the three different electrode surfaces studied, ranging from camel shape (Au electrode), U-shape (GC), and asymmetric bell shape (polycrystalline Pt). The carboxylic malonic and oxalic acids were also assessed for a proper comparison to understand better the role of the HBD's functional group in shaping the electrode-electrolyte structure against the trend found with diol isomers. A suitable EDL model must inevitably accommodate interfacial properties assessed at the capacitive region, namely the influence of the surface chemistry, potential dependence, DES structure molecules, and temperature in shaping the electrified interfacial anatomy.