Showing: 10 from total: 61 publications
1. Citizen Science in Promoting Chemical-Environmental Awareness of Students in the Context of Marine Pollution by (Micro)Plastics
Araújo, JL ; Morais, C ; Paiva, JC
in REVISTA ELECTRONICA EDUCARE, 2023, ISSN: 1409-4258,  Volume: 27, 
Article,  Indexed in: authenticus, crossref, scopus, unpaywall, wos 
Abstract Objective. To evaluate how the tasks carried out by the students in the scope of the PVC educational citizen science project for monitoring the quality of coastal waters contributed to raising their awareness of the problems of marine litter, in particular, the pollution of the ocean by plastics and microplastics, and the importance of chemistry in society. Methods. The project stage here presented consisted of six asynchronous tasks, conducted with digital mediation through the Moodle platform. The project took place in the 2018/2019 school year and involved 442 students and nine chemistry teachers from a middle school in the northern coastal region of Portugal. Data on the impact on students' awareness of the contexts considered were collected from the outputs the students produced in each task. The data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Discussion. From this analysis emerged indicators of the PVC project's positive contribution to raising students' awareness of the pollution of marine environments by (micro)plastics, as well as raising awareness of the role of chemistry in society. The students expressed positive opinions toward this science and recognized its links with other areas of science and technology. Conclusion. Thus, it was found that citizen science projects significantly promote students' awareness of chemical-environmental subjects by exploring current and relevant contexts.

2. Citizen Science as a Pedagogical Tool in Chemistry Education: Students’ Attitudes and Teachers’ Perceptions
Araújo, JL ; Morais, C ; Paiva, JC
in Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2022, Volume: 18, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref 

3. Visitors come to experience science: towards a non-obtrusive evaluation method based on immersive virtual reality
Morais, C ; Moreira, L ; Teixeira, A ; Aguiar, T ; Coelho, A ; Pereira, V ; Jacinto, A ; Varzim, M ; Paiva, JC ; Rosa, M
in JCOM-JOURNAL OF SCIENCE COMMUNICATION, 2022, ISSN: 1824-2049,  Volume: 21, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract This paper focuses on developing and assessing a non-obtrusive and transformative method, based on virtual reality, to evaluate science communication projects in science centres. The method was tested using deep-sea cutting-edge scientific content. We applied a mixed design, with 72 adult participants randomly assigned to experimental conditions (with/without exhibition exposure). Results showed that the exhibition promoted a better understanding of science. The non-obtrusive measures on awareness and engagement were positively related with questions posed via questionnaire and interview. The study adds theoretical and empirical support to the design and implementation of non-obtrusive and transformative evaluation experiences in science exhibitions in science centres and museums.

4. Science-Religion Dialogue in Education: Religion Teachers' Perceptions in a Roman-Catholic Context
Paiva, JC ; Rosa, M ; Moreira, JR ; Morais, C ; Moreira, L
in RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION, 2022, ISSN: 0157-244X,  Volume: 52, 
Article,  Indexed in: authenticus, crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract This paper examines the relationship between science and religion in the education system of Roman-Catholic Portuguese society. In particular, we explored perceptions of the relationship between science and religion for religious education teachers. We surveyed 198 Portuguese religious education teachers about how they view science and religion. The questionnaires' results revealed a number of similarities: religious education teachers are highly involved in religious practices and exposed to science; they perceived a compatibility between science and religion; and they have an openness to dialogue between both. They do not adhere to anti-scientific perspectives, but they simultaneously try to limit what can be explained by science. Thus, an interpretative view of dialogue and/or integration seems to best explain the perceptions of religious education teachers of the relationship between science and religion. These findings allow a space of discussion, enabling teachers to possibly foster the science-religion dialogue in their contexts of pedagogical activity.

5. The Game Pentade
Raposo, L ; Guerra, H ; Morais, C ; Coelho, A
in Advances in Game-Based Learning, 2022, ISSN: 2327-1825, 
Book Chapter,  Indexed in: crossref, unpaywall 
Abstract <jats:p>The use of digital games as support tools for education has proven to be effective. To explore their potential, it is crucial to design them carefully. This chapter considers the design of games for education, where players cultivate their knowledge and practice their skills by multiplying numerous hindrances during gaming. Educational elements are integrated into the gameplay, which players acquire while playing. The game's effectiveness depends on the players' ability to form a cheerful and encouraging environment to continue playing while increasing their interest in gameplay and improving academic performance. Following a design-first development approach, an innovative proposal for this design is presented, adding a new dimension to the game's tetrad: learning dynamics. Benefiting from years of professional practice, this game pentad design framework fulfills the learning and user experience requirements while overcoming the design limitations of more conventional approaches not based on an educational purpose. </jats:p>

6. No waves from surface knowledge: diving into the social representations of the deep sea
Morais, C ; Moreira, L ; Teixeira, AS ; Aguiar, T
in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION PART B-COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT, 2022, ISSN: 2154-8455,  Volume: 12, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract Recently, new data about deep-sea ecosystems has stirred scientific, economic, and ecological agendas, but little is known about the public’s perspectives of the deep sea. Our goal is to explore the public’s common sense knowledge of the deep sea, with a view to inform science communication efforts. Based on social representations theory, we investigated the relationship between the public’s meanings associated with the deep sea and psychosocial and positional variables, such as attitudes and education level, and reflected on the implications of the findings for science communication. The study was conducted in Portugal, a coastal, sea-connected country. The sample consisted of 315 adults from different age groups and social strata. Participants were asked to elicit and rank their thoughts about the deep sea using a ranked association technique and fill in questions about sociodemographic information, perceptions, and attitudes concerning the deep sea. Results showed that the social representations of the deep sea were structured as emotional versus rational views and as superficial ocean knowledge versus novel or unusual views. Moreover, results evinced a relationship between representations and psychosocial and positional variables. The gap between scientific and common sense knowledge was evident amongst participants with a low education level and low science engagement, whilst highly educated and science-engaged participants’ representations seemed to be narrowed by instrumental views on science. This research is significant to better directing science communication to increase well-informed public participation in decision-making related to deep sea management and other socio-scientific issues by responding to audience’s background knowledge.

7. Bridging Music and Chemistry: A Marching Band Analogy to Teach Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Vieira, H ; Morais, C
in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION, 2022, ISSN: 0021-9584,  Volume: 99, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract Scientific literacy is an important skill for students' success, given the characteristics of today's society. However, not all students have a natural predisposition toward science, chemistry in particular. Considering the relevance of transdisciplinary learning, schools should foster the scientific abilities for which students may have less aptitude or interest by taking advantage of areas and subjects that they have more inclination and knowledge. The use of analogies through comparisons between familiar and unfamiliar domains can potentiate the learning of abstract, unknown, or complex chemistry concepts. This article describes a case study regarding the use of a marching band analogy that was developed to teach kinetic-molecular theory. The study involved a convenience sample of 50 Portuguese seventh grade students attending a middle school music course, from four specialized music education schools. Data was collected through a questionnaire and an interview. Results reveal that the marching band analogy for kinetic-molecular theory, considering the students' profile, is didactic and suitable, enhances their attention and interest, and promotes their chemistry learning. In order to benefit chemistry education, we recommend the development and use of analogies between chemistry and music with students of similar profiles or the use of different areas and subjects for other student profiles.

8. Student participation in a coastal water quality citizen science project and its contribution to the conceptual and procedural learning of chemistry
Araujo, JL ; Morais, C ; Paiva, JC
in CHEMISTRY EDUCATION RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, 2022, ISSN: 1109-4028,  Volume: 23, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, unpaywall, wos 
Abstract The active participation of citizens in scientific research, through citizen science, has been proven successful. However, knowledge on the potential of citizen science within formal chemistry learning, at the conceptual and procedural levels, remains insufficiently explored. We developed a citizen science project - PVC: Perceiving the Value of Chemistry behind water and microplastics - which sought to involve students in monitoring the physicochemical parameters of coastal water quality, through the detection of microplastics in these waters, in addition to the qualitative identification of plastic contaminants on beaches. The project was conducted throughout the 2018/2019 school year and involved 442 middle school students (Key Stage 3 (KS3) aged 12-14, in Portuguese schools) and 9 chemistry teachers, in the northern coastal region of Portugal. The data on learning outcomes was collected through knowledge tests, applied after project conclusion, and was then compared to data collected up to six months later (retention test). In addition, interviews were conducted with participants, and researchers' field notes were recorded and analyzed. Data analysis suggests the PVC project promoted conceptual chemistry learning related to the analysis of physicochemical water parameters (pH, temperature, turbidity, salinity, nitrate and nitrite concentrations and dissolved oxygen), as well as polymers (polymer types, formation and structure). A positive knowledge retention was registered a few months after the project conclusion. At a process level, participants learned laboratory techniques (sieving, gravity and reduced pressure filtrations and crystallization) and the handling of laboratory materials. Furthermore, teachers recognized that their students' participation in the PVC project fostered the development of their argumentation skills, as well as their reflexive and critical thinking skills. The ability to communicate ideas and results, along with the development of students' digital skills, was also mentioned.

9. Citizen science through schools: the importance of interpersonal relationships
da Costa, IAPM ; Morais, CSL ; Monteiro, MJPFG
in CUADERNOS INFO, 2022, ISSN: 0719-3661, 
Article,  Indexed in: crossref, scopus, wos 
Abstract The CoAstro: @n Astronomy Condo citizen science project engages, in a mediated process, teachers, astronomers, and science communicators in research and science communication/science education practices. In CoAstro, scientific research objectives were aligned with science communication/science education objectives to engage public with low astronomy awareness. One of CoAstro's goals was to understand the effects of the relationships established among the participants, because these are key aspects for engagement. We conducted a case study following the participants during an academic year and collected data through interviews and participant observations. A focus group meeting followed those data collection techniques. The results show the personal benefits of established relationships, institutional effects, changes in the perceived identity roles, and the ability to understand and engage in astronomy research and astronomy communication/ education. Understanding social interactions contributes to increase the scope of citizen science projects' and demonstrates its relevance to engaging scientists, science communicators, and school communities, pointing to a path for community empowerment and engagement with science; i.e., a path to unveil a citizen science that moves from mere citizenship to personal comprehensive development: attitudes but also, knowledge.

10. An Alternative Experimental Procedure to Determine the Solubility of Potassium Nitrate in Water with Automatic Data Acquisition Using Arduino for Secondary School: Development and Validation with Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers
Morais, C ; Araujo, JL
in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION, 2022, ISSN: 0021-9584, 
Article in Press,  Indexed in: crossref, unpaywall, wos 
Abstract In the laboratory, data acquisition systems are important, as they allow us to easily and precisely collect data. In this sense, Arduino emerges as an automatic data acquisition device with great potential, due to its low cost and high versatility. In this work, we describe the development of an experimental apparatus, with automatic data acquisition using Arduino, to determine the variation of the solubility of potassium nitrate in water as a function of temperature. Ten chemistry teachers in initial training were involved in developing and validating that alternative experimental procedure for secondary school. Pre-service chemistry teachers determined the solubility of the aforementioned salt at different temperatures, using both a method for the study of the solubility of salts that does not resort to automatic data acquisition as well as the alternative method proposed in this work. The experimental solubility curves of potassium nitrate were plotted for both situations. The experimental results obtained by both methods are similar and very close to the values reported in the literature. Moreover, chemistry teachers in initial training recognize that the proposed method can promote the development of secondary students' skills such as greater mastery in assembling electrical circuits and in the use of technological devices or software for automatic data acquisition and processing. Thus, the results suggest the feasibility of the developed experimental method for its implementation in an educational context with secondary students and prove it to be an asset for the education of students, when compared to the traditionally used method.